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  Title The health and nutritional status of schoolchildren in Africa: evidence from school-based health programmes in Ghana and Tanzania. The Partnership for Child Development.[erratum appears in Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1998 Jul-Aug;92(4):450] Type Journal Article Article
  Year 1998 Publication Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene Abbreviated Journal Trans.R.Soc.Trop.Med.Hyg.  
  Volume 92 Issue 3 Pages 254-261  
  Keywords Im; Adolescent; Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/ep [Epidemiology]; Child; Female; Ghana/ep [Epidemiology]; Health Surveys; Hemoglobins/an [Analysis]; Humans; Male; Nutritional Status; Parasite Egg Count; Parasitic Diseases/ep [Epidemiology]; Physical Examination; Questionnaires; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Risk Factors; Rural Health; School Health Services; Tanzania/ep [Epidemiology]  
  Abstract Surveys of the health of schoolchildren in Tanga Region, Tanzania and Volta Region, Ghana are reported. Two age groups of both sexes were studied: 8-9 and 12-13 years old. Children themselves tend to have a poor perception of their health status. This is confirmed by biomedical surveys. Evidence was common of chronic ill-health due to undernutrition, anaemia, parasitic infections and micronutrient deficiencies. The older age groups of both sexes were significantly more stunted (height-for-age z score < 2 below National Center for Health Statistics reference values) than the younger groups, indicating that linear growth continues to falter throughout the school-age years. Anaemia was common: 38% of children in Ghana and 75% of children in Tanzania had a haemoglobin level < 120 g/L. Younger children were more likely to be anaemic than older children, but no significant difference between the sexes was observed. Helminth infections which cause blood loss (Schistosoma haematobium and hookworms) were common and only 37% of children in Ghana and 14% in Tanzania had no evidence of worm infection. In Ghana, 71% of children had a low urinary iodine concentration; in Tanzania 38%. The burden of ill-health suggests that school health programmes in these countries which deliver anthelmintics and micronutrient supplements have the potential to improve the health, growth and educational achievements of schoolchildren.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication England Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Record Owner: NLM; Publishing Model: Journal available in: Print Citation processed from: Print; NLM Journal Code: wbu, 7506129; CAS Registry/EC Number/Name of Substance: 0 (Hemoglobins).; Entry Date: 19981231 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ 412 Serial 8155  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) openurl 
  Title The health and nutritional status of schoolchildren in Africa: evidence from school-based health programmes in Ghana and Tanzania. The Partnership for Child Development.[erratum appears in Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1998 Jul-Aug;92(4):450] Type Journal Article Article
  Year 1998 Publication Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene Abbreviated Journal Trans.R.Soc.Trop.Med.Hyg.  
  Volume 92 Issue 3 Pages 254-261  
  Keywords Im; Adolescent; Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/ep [Epidemiology]; Child; Female; Ghana/ep [Epidemiology]; Health Surveys; Hemoglobins/an [Analysis]; Humans; Male; Nutritional Status; Parasite Egg Count; Parasitic Diseases/ep [Epidemiology]; Physical Examination; Questionnaires; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Risk Factors; Rural Health; School Health Services; Tanzania/ep [Epidemiology]  
  Abstract Surveys of the health of schoolchildren in Tanga Region, Tanzania and Volta Region, Ghana are reported. Two age groups of both sexes were studied: 8-9 and 12-13 years old. Children themselves tend to have a poor perception of their health status. This is confirmed by biomedical surveys. Evidence was common of chronic ill-health due to undernutrition, anaemia, parasitic infections and micronutrient deficiencies. The older age groups of both sexes were significantly more stunted (height-for-age z score < 2 below National Center for Health Statistics reference values) than the younger groups, indicating that linear growth continues to falter throughout the school-age years. Anaemia was common: 38% of children in Ghana and 75% of children in Tanzania had a haemoglobin level < 120 g/L. Younger children were more likely to be anaemic than older children, but no significant difference between the sexes was observed. Helminth infections which cause blood loss (Schistosoma haematobium and hookworms) were common and only 37% of children in Ghana and 14% in Tanzania had no evidence of worm infection. In Ghana, 71% of children had a low urinary iodine concentration; in Tanzania 38%. The burden of ill-health suggests that school health programmes in these countries which deliver anthelmintics and micronutrient supplements have the potential to improve the health, growth and educational achievements of schoolchildren.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication England Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Record Owner: NLM; Publishing Model: Journal available in: Print Citation processed from: Print; NLM Journal Code: wbu, 7506129; CAS Registry/EC Number/Name of Substance: 0 (Hemoglobins).; Entry Date: 19981231 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ 412 Serial 8162  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) openurl 
  Title The health and nutritional status of schoolchildren in Africa: evidence from school-based health programmes in Ghana and Tanzania. The Partnership for Child Development.[erratum appears in Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1998 Jul-Aug;92(4):450] Type Journal Article Article
  Year 1998 Publication Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene Abbreviated Journal Trans.R.Soc.Trop.Med.Hyg.  
  Volume 92 Issue 3 Pages 254-261  
  Keywords Im; Adolescent; Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/ep [Epidemiology]; Child; Female; Ghana/ep [Epidemiology]; Health Surveys; Hemoglobins/an [Analysis]; Humans; Male; Nutritional Status; Parasite Egg Count; Parasitic Diseases/ep [Epidemiology]; Physical Examination; Questionnaires; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Risk Factors; Rural Health; School Health Services; Tanzania/ep [Epidemiology]  
  Abstract Surveys of the health of schoolchildren in Tanga Region, Tanzania and Volta Region, Ghana are reported. Two age groups of both sexes were studied: 8-9 and 12-13 years old. Children themselves tend to have a poor perception of their health status. This is confirmed by biomedical surveys. Evidence was common of chronic ill-health due to undernutrition, anaemia, parasitic infections and micronutrient deficiencies. The older age groups of both sexes were significantly more stunted (height-for-age z score < 2 below National Center for Health Statistics reference values) than the younger groups, indicating that linear growth continues to falter throughout the school-age years. Anaemia was common: 38% of children in Ghana and 75% of children in Tanzania had a haemoglobin level < 120 g/L. Younger children were more likely to be anaemic than older children, but no significant difference between the sexes was observed. Helminth infections which cause blood loss (Schistosoma haematobium and hookworms) were common and only 37% of children in Ghana and 14% in Tanzania had no evidence of worm infection. In Ghana, 71% of children had a low urinary iodine concentration; in Tanzania 38%. The burden of ill-health suggests that school health programmes in these countries which deliver anthelmintics and micronutrient supplements have the potential to improve the health, growth and educational achievements of schoolchildren.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication England Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Record Owner: NLM; Publishing Model: Journal available in: Print Citation processed from: Print; NLM Journal Code: wbu, 7506129; CAS Registry/EC Number/Name of Substance: 0 (Hemoglobins).; Entry Date: 19981231 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ 412 Serial 8169  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) url  openurl
  Title Training in diagnostic ultrasound: essentials, principles and standards. Report of a WHO Study Group Type Report
  Year 1998 Publication World Health Organization Technical Report Series Abbreviated Journal World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser  
  Volume 875 Issue Pages i-46; back cover  
  Keywords Allied Health Personnel/*education; Curriculum; Education, Continuing; *Education, Medical; Educational Measurement; Humans; *Ultrasonography/instrumentation/methods/trends; World Health Organization  
  Abstract Diagnostic ultrasound is a rapidly developing imaging technology widely used in both industrialized and developing countries. For certain diagnostic applications, ultrasound has replaced commonly used radiographic imaging techniques as the method of choice, and it has also made possible new areas of diagnostic investigation. Moreover, equipment for ultrasound imaging tends to be cheaper and more widely available than imaging equipment requiring the use of ionizing radiation. This combination of factors has resulted in the proliferation of diagnostic ultrasound units, and in some cases their use by individuals without proper training, or under conditions of inadequate control. This report, the outcome of a recent WHO Study Group, is concerned with the essentials, principles, and standards of training for this important technology. The Study Group has analysed problems in the effective use of diagnostic ultrasound and reviewed current training practice worldwide. For the first time, outlines of recommended training curricula for the general, advanced, and specialized use of diagnostic ultrasound are presented. Recommended standards for training programmes, training centres, and the training process are also discussed. The report highlights the role played by professional societies, but also calls attention to the need for appropriate legislation and regulation. The Study Group's recommendations are relevant to all those involved in the use of diagnostic ultrasound technology, even in countries where existing standards of practice are high. In addition to ultrasound specialists, the report should be of particular interest to those responsible for medical education or for formulating policies regarding the use of health technology.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0512-3054 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:9659004 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 10579  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) url  openurl
  Title Training in diagnostic ultrasound: essentials, principles and standards. Report of a WHO Study Group Type Report
  Year 1998 Publication World Health Organization Technical Report Series Abbreviated Journal World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser  
  Volume 875 Issue Pages i-46; back cover  
  Keywords Allied Health Personnel/*education; Curriculum; Education, Continuing; *Education, Medical; Educational Measurement; Humans; *Ultrasonography/instrumentation/methods/trends; World Health Organization  
  Abstract Diagnostic ultrasound is a rapidly developing imaging technology widely used in both industrialized and developing countries. For certain diagnostic applications, ultrasound has replaced commonly used radiographic imaging techniques as the method of choice, and it has also made possible new areas of diagnostic investigation. Moreover, equipment for ultrasound imaging tends to be cheaper and more widely available than imaging equipment requiring the use of ionizing radiation. This combination of factors has resulted in the proliferation of diagnostic ultrasound units, and in some cases their use by individuals without proper training, or under conditions of inadequate control. This report, the outcome of a recent WHO Study Group, is concerned with the essentials, principles, and standards of training for this important technology. The Study Group has analysed problems in the effective use of diagnostic ultrasound and reviewed current training practice worldwide. For the first time, outlines of recommended training curricula for the general, advanced, and specialized use of diagnostic ultrasound are presented. Recommended standards for training programmes, training centres, and the training process are also discussed. The report highlights the role played by professional societies, but also calls attention to the need for appropriate legislation and regulation. The Study Group's recommendations are relevant to all those involved in the use of diagnostic ultrasound technology, even in countries where existing standards of practice are high. In addition to ultrasound specialists, the report should be of particular interest to those responsible for medical education or for formulating policies regarding the use of health technology.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0512-3054 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:9659004 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 11253  
Permanent link to this record
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