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Author Gerland, S; Winther, J-G; Örbæk, JB; Ivanov, BV openurl 
  Title Physical properties, spectral reflectance and thickness development of first year fast ice in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard Type Book Chapter
  Year 1999 Publication Proceedings of the International Symposium on Polar Aspects of Global Change Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 275-282  
  Keywords Fast ice; Ice properties; Reflectance; Ice thickness; Physical properties; PNE, Norway, Svalbard, Kongsfjorden  
  Abstract A ground truth study was performed on first year fast ice in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard, during spring 1997 and 1998. The survey included sea ice thickness monitoring as well as observation of surface albedo, attenuation of optical radiation in the ice, physical properties and texture of snow and sea ice. The average total sea ice thickness in May was about 0.9 m, including a 0.2 m thick snow layer on top. Within a few weeks in both years, the snow melted almost completely, whereas the ice thickness decreased by not more than 0.05 m. During spring, the lower part of the snow refroze into a solid layer. The sea ice became more porous. Temperatures in the sea ice increased and the measurable salinity of the sea ice decreased with time. Due to snow cover thinning and snow grain growth, maximum surface albedo decreased from 0.96 to 0.74. Texture analysis on cores showed columnar ice with large crystals (max. crystal length > 0.1 m) below a 0.11 m thick mixed surface layer of granular ice with smaller crystals. In both years, we observed sea ice algae at the bottom part of the ice. This layer has a significant effect on the radiation transmissivity.  
  Address Norwegian Polar Institute, Polar Environmental Centre, N-9296 Tromsoe, Norway  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Norsk Polarinstitutt Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Polar Research Abbreviated Series Title Polar Res  
  Series Volume 18 Series Issue 2 Edition  
  ISSN 0800-0395 ISBN (up) Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference International Symposium on Polar Aspects of Global Change, Tromso (Norway), 24-28 Aug 1998  
  Notes Conference Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ 726 Serial 6  
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