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Author (up) Kray, J. url  openurl
  Title Task-set switching under cue-based versus memory-based switching conditions in younger and older adults Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Brain Research Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 1105 Issue 1 Pages 83-92  
  Keywords task set switching; cue based switching; memory based switching; age differences; time interval; Cues; Interresponse Time; Memory; Task Complexity; Probability; Uncertainty  
  Abstract Adult age differences in task switching and advance preparation were examined by comparing cue-based and memory-based switching conditions. Task switching was assessed by determining two types of costs that occur at the general (mixing costs) and specific (switching costs) level of switching. Advance preparation was investigated by varying the time interval until the next task (short, middle, very long). Results indicated that the implementation of task sets was different for cue-based switching with random task sequences and memory-based switching with predictable task sequences. Switching costs were strongly reduced under cue-based switching conditions, indicating that task-set cues facilitate the retrieval of the next task. Age differences were found for mixing costs and for switching costs only under cue-based conditions in which older adults showed smaller switching costs than younger adults. It is suggested that older adults adopt a less extreme bias between two tasks than younger adults in situations associated with uncertainty. For cue-based switching with random task sequences, older adults are less engaged in a complete reconfiguration of task sets because of the probability of a further task change. Furthermore, the reduction of switching costs was more pronounced for cue- than memory-based switching for short preparation intervals, whereas the reduction of switch costs was more pronounced for memory- than cue-based switching for longer preparation intervals at least for older adults. Together these findings suggest that the implementation of task sets is functionally different for the two types of task-switching conditions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract)  
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  Publisher Elsevier Science Place of Publication Kray, Jutta, Department of Psychology, Saarland University, Im Stadtwald, D-66123, Saarbrucken, Germ Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes 0006-8993Accession Number: 2006-10729-008. First Author & Affiliation: Kray, Jutta; Department of Psychology, Saarland University, SaarbrÃRcken, Germany. Other Journal Title: Brain Research. Release Date: 20070312. Publication Type: Journal (0100) Peer Reviewed Journal (0110). Media Covered: Electronic. Media Available: Electronic; Print. Document Type: Journal Article. Language: English. Major Descriptor: Age Differences; Cues; Interresponse Time; Memory; Task Complexity. Minor Descriptor: Probability; Uncertainty. Classification: Cognitive Processes (2340) . Population: Human (10) Male (30) Female (40) . Location: Germany. Age Group: Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300) . Grant Information: The present research was funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (grant KR 1884/3-1). Tests & Measures: Digit Symbol Substitution Test; . Methodology: Empirical Study; Quantitative Study. References Available: Y. Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Kray2006 Serial 5423  
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