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Author (up) Oaksford, M.; Moussakowski, M. url  openurl
  Title Negations and natural sampling in data selection: Ecological versus heuristic explanations of matching bias Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Memory & Cognition Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 32 Issue 4 Pages 570-581  
  Keywords negations; natural sampling; data selection; matching bias; heuristic approach; ecological approach; Cognitive Processes; Data Collection; Experimenter Bias; Hypothesis Testing; Models; Heuristic Modeling; Logical Thinking; Sampling (Experimental)  
  Abstract Matching bias occurs when people ignore negations when testing a hypothesis--for example, if A, then not 2--and select possible data types that are named in the hypothesis (i.e., A and 2; Evans & Lynch, 1973; see also record 1974-08371-001). There are two explanations of this bias: the heuristic account and the contrast class account. The latter is part of Oaksford and Chater's (1994; see also record 1995-08271-001) ecological approach to data selection. On this account, a contrast set (i.e., birds that are not ravens) has a higher probability than the original set (i.e., birds that are ravens). This article reports two experiments in which these accounts make divergent predictions. The same materials were used as those in Yama (2001; see also record 2001-07850-004), who found more support for the heuristic approach. Experiment 1 replicated Yama with Western participants. Experiment 2 used a procedure introduced by Oaksford and Wakefield (2003; see record 2003-02730-014). Rather than present participants with one of each of the four possible data types all at once, 50 were presented one at a time. The proportions of each data type reflected the relevant probabilities. The results supported the ecological approach, showing that people constructed contrast sets that strongly influenced their data selection behavior. The results were not consistent with the heuristic approach. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract)  
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  Publisher Psychonomic Society Place of Publication Oaksford, Mike, School of Psychology, Cardiff University, P. O. Box 901, Cardiff, Wales, CF10 3YG, o Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
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  Notes 0090-502XAccession Number: 2004-18657-005. First Author & Affiliation: Oaksford, Mike; Cardiff University, Cardiff, Wales. Release Date: 20041012. Publication Type: Journal; Peer Reviewed Journal. Media Covered: Electronic. Media Available: Electronic; Print. Document Type: Original Journal Article. Language: English. Major Descriptor(s): Cognitive Processes; Data Collection; Experimenter Bias; Hypothesis Testing; Models. Minor Descriptor(s): Heuristic Modeling; Logical Thinking; Sampling (Experimental). Classification: Cognitive Processes (2340). Population: Human (10). Location: Europe; United Kingdom. Age Group:Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300); . References Available: Y. Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Oaksford2004 Serial 5066  
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