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Author Federowicz, K.; Kaszynska, M.; Zielinski, A.; Hoffmann, M. openurl 
  Title Effect of Curing Methods on Shrinkage Development in 3D-Printed Concrete Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Materials Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 13 Issue 11 Pages 2590  
  Keywords 3D Concrete Printing ; additive manufacturing ; curing conditions ; digital construction ; shrinkage  
  Abstract Technological developments in construction have led to an increase in the use of 3D modelling using CAD environments. The popularity of this approach has increased in tandem with developments in industry branches which use 3D printers to print concrete based printing materials in construction, as these allow freedom in shaping the dimensions of supporting elements. One of the biggest challenges for researchers working on this highly innovative technology is that of cement material shrinkage. This article presents the findings of research on an original method of measuring deformations caused by shrinkage in 3D-printed concrete elements. It also discusses the results of tests on base mixes, as well as comparisons between the influence of internal and external curing methods on the development of deformations and their final outcomes. Furthermore, the article discusses differences between deformations formed after seven days of hardening without curing, with those which occur when two common, traditional concrete curing methods are used: foil insulation and shrinkage reducing admixtures. In addition, the article examines the effects of internal curing on the 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 day mechanical properties of concrete, in accordance with EN 196-1 and EN 12390-2. Studies have shown that the optimal amount of shrinkage reducing admixtures is 4% (in relation to the mass of cement), resulting in a reduction in total shrinkage of 23%. The use of a shrinkage reducing admixture in 3D-printed concrete does not affect their strength after 28 days, but slows the strength development during the first 7 days.  
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  ISSN 1996-1944 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition (up) Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number 1 @ metmet3 @ FederowiczKarol2020EoCM Serial 17810  
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