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Author (up) Sternberg, A.; Jens, C.M.; Bardow, A. openurl 
  Title Life Cycle Assessment of CO2-Based C1-Chemicals Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Green Chemistry Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 19 Issue 9 Pages 2244-2259  
  Keywords Rwgs  
  Abstract Carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrogen are promising feedstocks for a sustainable chemical industry. Currently, the conversions of CO2 and hydrogen are most advanced for chemicals with 1 carbon atom, the so-called C1-chemicals, with the first pilot plants in operation. For formic acid, carbon monoxide, methanol, and methane, CO2-based C1-chemicals can reduce the impacts of fossil depletion and global warming through the substitution of fossil-based processes. Existing life cycle assessment (LCA) studies for carbon monoxide, methanol, and methane show that a reduction in environmental impacts is achieved if hydrogen is supplied by water electrolysis with renewable electricity. However, in the foreseeable future, renewable electricity will be limited. Thus, from an environmental point of view, renewable electricity should be employed for chemical processes in the order of highest environmental impact reductions. Environmental impact reductions are the difference in environmental impacts of fossil-based processes and CO2-based processes. In this study, we compared the CO2-based production of formic acid, carbon monoxide, methanol, and methane. We determined the reduction of global warming and fossil depletion impacts using 1 kg of hydrogen. Our results show that the CO2-based production of formic acid achieves the highest environmental impact reductions, followed by carbon monoxide and methanol. The lowest environmental impact reductions are achieved for CO2-based methane production. Our analysis reveals that the CO2-based production of formic acid can reduce environmental impacts, compared to the fossil-based process, even if hydrogen is supplied by fossil-based steam-methane-reforming.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher The Royal Society of Chemistry Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1463-9270 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ sternbergLifeCycleAssessment2017 Serial 17705  
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