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Author (up) Underwood, G.J.C.; Aslam, S.N.; Michel, C.; Niemi, A.; Norman, L.; Meiners, K.M.; Laybourn-Parry, J.; Paterson, H.; Thomas, D.N. url  doi
  Title Broad-scale predictability of carbohydrates and exopolymers in Antarctic and Arctic sea ice Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A  
  Volume 110 Issue 39 Pages 15734-15739  
  Keywords Antarctic Regions; Arctic Regions; Biopolymers/*analysis; Carbohydrates/*analysis; Ice Cover/*chemistry; Models, Chemical; Molecular Weight; Solubility; algae; biogeochemistry; global relationships; microbial  
  Abstract Sea ice can contain high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), much of which is carbohydrate-rich extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) produced by microalgae and bacteria inhabiting the ice. Here we report the concentrations of dissolved carbohydrates (dCHO) and dissolved EPS (dEPS) in relation to algal standing stock [estimated by chlorophyll (Chl) a concentrations] in sea ice from six locations in the Southern and Arctic Oceans. Concentrations varied substantially within and between sampling sites, reflecting local ice conditions and biological content. However, combining all data revealed robust statistical relationships between dCHO concentrations and the concentrations of different dEPS fractions, Chl a, and DOC. These relationships were true for whole ice cores, bottom ice (biomass rich) sections, and colder surface ice. The distribution of dEPS was strongly correlated to algal biomass, with the highest concentrations of both dEPS and non-EPS carbohydrates in the bottom horizons of the ice. Complex EPS was more prevalent in colder surface sea ice horizons. Predictive models (validated against independent data) were derived to enable the estimation of dCHO concentrations from data on ice thickness, salinity, and vertical position in core. When Chl a data were included a higher level of prediction was obtained. The consistent patterns reflected in these relationships provide a strong basis for including estimates of regional and seasonal carbohydrate and dEPS carbon budgets in coupled physical-biogeochemical models, across different types of sea ice from both polar regions.  
  Address School of Biological Sciences, University of Essex, Colchester, Essex CO4 3SQ, United Kingdom  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher National Academy of Sciences Place of Publication Washington, DC Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0027-8424 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:24019487; PMCID:PMC3785782 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 17491  
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