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Author (up) Ardhanareeswaran, K.; Coppola, G.; Vaccarino, F. url  openurl
  Title The use of stem cells to study autism spectrum disorder Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine Abbreviated Journal Yale J Biol Med  
  Volume 88 Issue 1 Pages 5-16  
  Keywords Animals; Autism Spectrum Disorder/*pathology/therapy; Humans; Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/*pathology; *Models, Biological; Nervous System/pathology; Stem Cell Transplantation; autism; autism spectrum disorder; induced pluripotent stem cells; stem cells  
  Abstract Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) affects as many as 1 in 68 children and is said to be the fastest-growing serious developmental disability in the United States. There is currently no medical cure or diagnostic test for ASD. Furthermore, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has yet to approve a single drug for the treatment of autism's core symptoms. Despite numerous genome studies and the identification of hundreds of genes that may cause or predispose children to ASD, the pathways underlying the pathogenesis of idiopathic ASD still remain elusive. Post-mortem brain samples, apart from being difficult to obtain, offer little insight into a disorder that arises through the course of development. Furthermore, ASD is a disorder of highly complex, human-specific behaviors, making it difficult to model in animals. Stem cell models of ASD can be generated by performing skin biopsies of ASD patients and then dedifferentiating these fibroblasts into human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). iPSCs closely resemble embryonic stem cells and retain the unique genetic signature of the ASD patient from whom they were originally derived. Differentiation of these iPSCs into neurons essentially recapitulates the ASD patient's neuronal development in a dish, allowing for a patient-specific model of ASD. Here we review our current understanding of the underlying neurobiology of ASD and how the use of stem cells can advance this understanding, possibly leading to new therapeutic avenues.  
  Address Child Study Center, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut ; Program in Neurodevelopment and Regeneration, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut ; Yale Kavli Institute for Neuroscience, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut ; Department of Neurobiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0044-0086 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:25745370; PMCID:PMC4345539 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 16780  
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