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Author openurl 
  Title Water-Gas Shift Reaction Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2018 Publication Wikipedia Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract The water-gas shift reaction (WGSR) describes the reaction of carbon monoxide and water vapor to form carbon dioxide and hydrogen (the mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen (not water) is known as water gas): CO + H2O $\rightleftharpoons$ CO2 + H2The water gas shift reaction was discovered by Italian physicist Felice Fontana in 1780. It was not until much later that the industrial value of this reaction was realized. Before the early 20th century, hydrogen was obtained by reacting steam under high pressure with iron to produce iron, iron oxide and hydrogen. With the development of industrial processes that required hydrogen, such as the Haber Bosch ammonia synthesis, a less expensive and more efficient method of hydrogen production was needed. As a resolution to this problem, the WGSR was combined with the gasification of coal to produce a pure hydrogen product. As the idea of hydrogen economy gains popularity, the focus on hydrogen as a replacement fuel source for hydrocarbons is increasing.  
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  Call Number refbase @ user @ WatergasShiftReaction2018 Serial 17728  
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Author Zhao, Z.; Chong, K.; Jiang, J.; Wilson, K.; Zhang, X.; Wang, F. openurl 
  Title Low-Carbon Roadmap of Chemical Production: A Case Study of Ethylene in China Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2018 Publication Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 97 Issue Pages 580-591  
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  Abstract The increasing emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) are primarily driven by the rapid expansion of energy-intensive sectors such as the chemical industry. This work selects ethylene, one of the most important chemicals, as a model study to represent the low-carbon roadmap of chemical production. Four strategies improving the efficiency of fossil resource usage, developing the technology for carbon capture and storage (CCS), CO2 chemical conversion, and converting biomass resources into chemicals, are used to reduce CO2 emissions. A comprehensive analysis of the life cycle CO2 emissions of different ethylene production routes has been performed to compare their emission reduction potential. The results indicate that the BMTO (biomass to olefins via methanolto-olefins) pathway releases the least CO2 (- 1.3 t CO2/t ethylene), while the CFTO (coal to olefins via FischerTropsch synthesis) possesses the highest CO2 emissions. Combining CCS with BMTO results in CO2 emissions of  8.2 t per t ethylene. Furthermore, we analysed the annual production and CO2 emissions of ethylene in the last 17 years and integrated this real-time change with different pathways. The CO2 emissions have decreased by 29.4% per t ethylene from 2000 to 2016 in China. However, the total amount of CO2 emissions continuously increases in ethylene production industry. Given that China has promised to hit peak CO2 emissions by 2030, a scenario analysis was performed. To achieve this goal, the ratios of BMTO, CO2MTO (CO2 to olefins via methanol-to-olefins) or BETE (ethanol to ethylene pathway originating from biomass) pathways should increase by 1.0%, 1.2% and 1.1% annually from 2020, respectively. Then more than 500 million metric tons of CO2 will be eliminated from 2020 to 2040. The results highlight the pivotal role that regulation and policy administration can play in controlling CO2 emissions by increasing average technological level and turning to low-carbon routes in the chemical industry in China.  
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  ISSN 1364-0321 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ zhaoLowcarbonRoadmapChemical2018 Serial 17737  
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Author Bazzanella, A.; Ausfelder, F. openurl 
  Title Low Carbon Energy and Feedstock for the European Chemical Industry Technology Study Type Book Whole
  Year (down) 2017 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords methanol synthesis  
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  Call Number refbase @ user @ bazzanellaLowCarbonEnergy2017 Serial 17596  
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Author Collet, P.; Flottes, E.; Favre, A.; Raynal, L.; Pierre, H.; Capela, S.; Peregrina, C. openurl 
  Title Techno-Economic and Life Cycle Assessment of Methane Production via Biogas Upgrading and Power to Gas Technology Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2017 Publication Applied Energy Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 192 Issue Pages 282-295  
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  Abstract To decrease the use of fossil fuels and face the energetic demand, the integration of renewable energy is a necessary step. Part of this renewable energy can be supplied by the production of electricity from photovoltaic panels and windfarms. The massive use of these intermittent energies will lead to overproduction periods, and there is consequently a need to convert this surplus of electricity into a storable form of energy. Power-to-gas (PtG) technology consists in using electricity to convert water into hydrogen by electrolysis, and then to synthetize methane from carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Techno-economic and Life Cycle Assessment of methane production via the combination of anaerobic digestion and PtG technology have been applied to sewage sludge valorization. Process studies and equipment design have been addressed considering already available technologies. Sensitivity analyses have been done on biogas upgrading technologies, electricity prices, annual operation time and composition of the electricity mix with also a comparison between PtG and direct injection. It appears that the more the electricity is expensive, the longer the operation time of the methanation process must be to be competitive with injection of methane from biogas. Reduction of electricity consumption of the electrolysis step decreases production costs. Even if the current context does not feature adapted conditions to ensure an economically viable chain, the evolution of the energetic context in the next few years as well as the expected technological improvements will contribute to overall cost reduction. From an environmental point of view, continuous PtG generates more greenhouse gases than direct injection, but intermittent operation with use of renewable electricity can significantly reduce GHG emissions. From an endpoint impacts perspective, impact from continuous PtG are higher than biogas upgrading, but much lower than fossil energy. Future development of low electricity consumption of the electrolysis process, and integration of renewable credits from CO2 valorization can increase the competitiveness of this technology.  
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  ISSN 0306-2619 ISBN Medium  
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  Call Number refbase @ user @ colletTechnoeconomicLifeCycle2017 Serial 17607  
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Author Markewitz, D.P.; Zhao, D.L.; Robinius, D.M. openurl 
  Title Technologiebericht 2.3 CO2-Abscheidung Und Speicherung (CCS) Innerhalb Des Forschungsprojekts TF_Energiewende Type Book Whole
  Year (down) 2017 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Teilbericht 2 an das Bundesministerium für Wirtsch Issue Pages  
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  Publisher In: Wuppertal Institut, ISI, IZES (Hrsg.): Technologien für die Energiewende Place of Publication Wuppertal, Karlsruhe, Saarbrücken Editor  
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  Call Number refbase @ user @ dr.petermarkewitzTechnologieberichtCO2AbscheidungUnd2017 Serial 17618  
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