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Author Mock, T.; Dieckmann, G.S.; Haas, C.; Krell, A.; Tison, J.-L.; Belem, A.L.; Papadimitriou, S.; Thomas, D.N. url  openurl
  Title Micro-optodes in sea ice: a new approach to investigate oxygen dynamics during sea ice formation Type Journal Article
  Year 2002 Publication Aquatic Microbial Ecology Abbreviated Journal Aquat Microb Ecol  
  Volume 29 Issue 3 Pages 297-306  
  Keywords Fragilariopsis cylindrus; Oxygen; Methods; Micro-optodes; Sea ice; Biogeochemistry; Diatoms; Algae; Chlorophyll; Photosynthesis; Salinity effects; Sea water; Marine ecosystems; Chlorophylls; Dissolved oxygen; Gases; Epontic environment; Electrodes; Sensors; Brines; Ice-water interface; Ice formation; Bacillariophyceae  
  Abstract Oxygen micro-optodes were used to measure oxygen dynamics directly within the microstructure of sea ice by freezing the sensors into the ice during its formation. The experiment was conducted in a 4 m³ mesocosm filled with artificial seawater and inoculated with a unialgal culture of the common Antarctic ice diatom Fragilariopsis cylindrus (Bacillariophyceae) to a final chlorophyll a (chl a) concentration of 11 µg 1?¹. Ice growth was initiated 7 d after inoculation by reducing the air temperature to -10 plus or minus 2 degree C and terminated 17 d later. The final ice thickness was 27 cm. One optode was frozen into grease ice and 2 others into the skeletal layer of the growing ice sheet. Increasing oxygen concentrations during ice crystal formation at the water surface and the ice-water interface revealed a strong inclusion of oxygen, which was either physically trapped and/or the result of photosynthesising diatoms. The major portion of oxygen was present as gas bubbles due to super-saturation as a result of increasing salinity and oxygen production by diatoms. An increase in salinity due to a concurrent decrease in ice temperatures during subsequent sea ice development reduced the maximum concentration of dissolved oxygen within brine. Thus, dissolved oxygen concentrations decreased over time, whereas gaseous oxygen was released to the atmosphere and seawater. The sensors are a significant advance on more conventional microelectrodes, because the recordings can be temperature and salinity compensated in order to obtain precise measurements of oxygen dynamics with regard to total (dissolved and gaseous) and dissolved oxygen in sea ice. Optodes do not consume oxygen during measuremnet over a long period under extreme conditions, which is another advantage for long-term deployment in the field.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Inter-Research Place of Publication Oldendorf/Luhe Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title (up)  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0948-3055 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Marine Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ admin @ Mock++2002 Serial 749  
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Author Mock, T.; Thomas, D.N. url  openurl
  Title Recent advances in sea-ice microbiology Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Environmental Microbiology Abbreviated Journal Environ Microbiol  
  Volume 7 Issue 5 Pages 605-619  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Over the past 50 years there has been much effort invested in the investigation of the ecology of sea ice. Sea ice is an ephemeral feature of the Arctic and Southern Oceans and smaller water bodies such as the Baltic and Caspian Seas. The semisolid ice matrix provides a range of habitats in which a diverse range of microbial organisms thrive. In the past 5 years there has been considerable steps forward in sea-ice research, in particular regarding the analysis of sea-ice microstructure and the investigation of the diversity and adaptation of microbial communities. These studies include: (i) controlled simulated and in situ studies on a micrometer scale to unravel the dynamic of the microhabitat with consequences for the organisms; (ii) the introduction of molecular approaches to uncover the diversity of uncultured still unknown microorganisms; and (iii) studies into the molecular adaptation of selected model organisms to the extreme environment. This minireview presents some of the most recent findings from sea-ice studies within the framework of these aims.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Blackwell Publishing, Inc. Place of Publication Oxford Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title (up)  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1462-2912 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Minireview Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ admin @ Mock+Thomas2005 Serial 750  
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Author Schnack-Schiel, S.B.; Dieckmann, G.S.; Gradinger, R.; Melnikov, I.A.; Spindler, M.; Thomas, D.N. url  openurl
  Title Meiofauna in sea ice of the Weddell Sea (Antarctica) Type Journal Article
  Year 2001 Publication Polar Biology Abbreviated Journal Polar Biol  
  Volume 24 Issue 10 Pages 724-728  
  Keywords Sea ice biota; Foraminifera; Antarctic sea ice; Sea ice; Meiofauna; Community composition; Meiobenthos; Antarctic zone; Juveniles; Psw; Weddell Sea; Antarctica  
  Abstract Sea-ice meiofauna was studied during various cruises to the Weddell Sea. Foraminifers dominate (75%) the sea-ice community in terms of numerical abundance while turbellarians dominate (45%) in terms of biomass. Distribution of organisms is patchy and varies considerably between cruises but also between sampling sites within one cruise. The bulk of the meiofauna is concentrated in the lowest parts of the sea ice, especially during winter and autumn. However, in porous summer sea ice, sympagic organisms also occur in high densities in upper and intermediate layers of sea ice. Proto- and metazoans associated with Antarctic sea ice include organisms actually living in sea ice, as well as those on the underside of floes and in the underlying water. The sea-ice habitat serves as a feeding ground, as well as an important nursery for juveniles, providing energy-rich food resources. The ice also constitutes a shelter from predators.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Springer Place of Publication Heidelberg Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title (up)  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0722-4060 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ admin @ Schnack-Schiel++2001 Serial 751  
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Author Schnack-Schiel, S.B.; Dieckmann, G.S.; Kattner, G.; Thomas, D.N. url  openurl
  Title Copepods in summer platelet ice in the eastern Weddell Sea, Antarctica Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Polar Biology Abbreviated Journal Polar Biol  
  Volume 27 Issue 8 Pages 502-506  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Copepods in platelet-ice layers underlying fast ice and in the water column below were studied at Drescher Inlet, eastern Weddell Sea in February 1998. Three copepod species were found: Drescheriella glacialis and Paralabidocera antarctica occurred in platelet-ice layers, while Stephos longipes was only present in the water column. The distribution of all species varied considerably between station and depth. D. glacialis dominated the platelet-ice community and occurred at all five platelet-ice sampling sites, except one, with numbers of up to 26 ind. l?¹. In contrast, P. antarctica was only found in low numbers (up to 2 ind. l?¹) at one site. The total copepod abundance in the platelet ice was not associated with algal biomass, although it was strongly correlated with high ammonium concentrations (up to 9 µM) in the interstitial water between the platelets. This is the first indirect evidence to support the hypothesis that zooplankton excretion can partly account for the high ammonium values often found in platelet-ice layers.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Springer-Verlag Place of Publication Heidelberg Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title (up)  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0722-4060 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Short note Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ admin @ Schnack-Schiel++2004 Serial 752  
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Author Schnack-Schiel, S.B.; Thomas, D.N.; Haas, C.; Dieckmann, G.S.; Alheit, R. url  openurl
  Title The occurrence of the copepods Stephos longipes (Calanoida) and Drescheriella glacialis (Harpacticoida) in summer sea ice in the Weddell Sea, Antarctica Type Journal Article
  Year 2001 Publication Antarctic Science Abbreviated Journal Antarctic Sci  
  Volume 13 Issue 2 Pages 150-157  
  Keywords copepods; Drescheriella glacialis; sea ice; seasonality; Stephos longipes  
  Abstract In January to March 1997, a RV Polarstern cruise that transected the Weddell Sea resulted in samples being taken in thick pack ice in the south-eastern Weddell Sea and then along the marginal ice edge towards the Antarctic Peninsula. Several ice types were thus sampled over a wide geographic area during late summer/early autumn. Common features of the first warm period was the occurrence of surface ponds, and that many floes had quasi-continuous horizontal gaps, underlying a layer of ice and metamorphic snow. With the onset of cold air temperatures in late February the gaps rapidly refroze. The calanoid copepod Stephos longipes occurred in all habitats encountered and showed highest numbers in the surface ice in summer, in the gap water during both seasons and in the refrozen gap water in autumn. Nauplii outnumbered copepodids in the surface ice and refrozen gap water, while in the gap water copepodids, mainly stages CI-CIII in summer and CII-CIV in autumn, comprised about 70% of the total population. The harpacticoid species Drescheriella glacialis did not occur in all habitats and was missing in surface ponds and new ice. Nauplii of D. glacialis were rarely found in gapwater, but predominated in the refrozen gaps.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title (up)  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0954-1020 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ admin @ Schnack-Schiel++2001_2 Serial 753  
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