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Author Gomez, I.; Thomas, D.N.; Wiencke, C. openurl 
  Title Longitudinal profiles of growth, photosynthesis and light independent carbon fixation in the Antarctic brown alga Ascoseira mirabilis Type Journal Article
  Year 1995 Publication Botanica Marina Abbreviated Journal Bot Mar  
  Volume 38 Issue (up) Pages 157-164  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Thallus growth, photoynthetic oxygen evolution and rates of carbon fixation were determinedalong the lamina of the endemic Antarctic brown alga Ascoseira mirabilis (Ascoseirales), grown under simulated Antarctic condtions. The meristem is basally located and forms new blade tiddue under spring-conditions. Light saturated net photosynthesis (P,ax), measures as O? production, was higher in ther intermediate region of the plant (9..8 µmol O? g?¹ fw h?¹). In general, photosynthetic parameters such as dark respiration, gross photosynthesis, photosynthetic efficiency (?) and photosynthetic light compensation (Ic) increased significantly towards the distal region. Carbon-fixation in A. mirabilis also showed thllus-dependent variation. Rates of light and light independent (dark) carbon fixation increased towards the distal regions ranging between 7.6-9.5 and 1.2-2.0 µmol C g?¹ fw h?¹ respectively. The percentage of light independent carbon fixation (in relation to light ¹?C-fixation) also increased from the basal to the distal parts reaching 24% in the distal region of the thallus. he contents of Chl a and Chl c, were close to 0.37 and 0.14 mg g?¹ fw respectively and were notably uniform along the lamina. The results indicate that the formation of the blade by a basal meristem and the increase of light carbon fixation rates from base to the distal regions in A. mirabilis are similar compared with certain Laminariales, especially members of the genus Laminaria. However, light independent carbon fixation is highest in the meristem of Laminaria, opposite to the results obtained here for A. mirabilis  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher de Gruyter Place of Publication Berlin, New York Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ admin @ Gomez++1995 Serial 736  
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Author Brierley, A.S.; Thomas, D.N. openurl 
  Title Ecology of southern ocean pack ice Type Journal Article
  Year 2002 Publication Advances in marine biology Abbreviated Journal Adv Mar Biol  
  Volume 43 Issue (up) Pages 171-276  
  Keywords Animals; Antarctic Regions; Birds; Crustacea; Ecology; *Ecosystem; Environment; Fishes; *Ice; *Marine Biology; Oceans and Seas; Phytoplankton; Population Dynamics; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Seasons; *Seawater; Water Microbiology; Whales  
  Abstract Around Antarctica the annual five-fold growth and decay of sea ice is the most prominent physical process and has a profound impact on marine life there. In winter the pack ice canopy extends to cover almost 20 million square kilometres--some 8% of the southern hemisphere and an area larger than the Antarctic continent itself (13.2 million square kilometres)--and is one of the largest, most dynamic ecosystems on earth. Biological activity is associated with all physical components of the sea-ice system: the sea-ice surface; the internal sea-ice matrix and brine channel system; the underside of sea ice and the waters in the vicinity of sea ice that are modified by the presence of sea ice. Microbial and microalgal communities proliferate on and within sea ice and are grazed by a wide range of proto- and macrozooplankton that inhabit the sea ice in large concentrations. Grazing organisms also exploit biogenic material released from the sea ice at ice break-up or melt. Although rates of primary production in the underlying water column are often low because of shading by sea-ice cover, sea ice itself forms a substratum that provides standing stocks of bacteria, algae and grazers significantly higher than those in ice-free areas. Decay of sea ice in summer releases particulate and dissolved organic matter to the water column, playing a major role in biogeochemical cycling as well as seeding water column phytoplankton blooms. Numerous zooplankton species graze sea-ice algae, benefiting additionally because the overlying sea-ice ceiling provides a refuge from surface predators. Sea ice is an important nursery habitat for Antarctic krill, the pivotal species in the Southern Ocean marine ecosystem. Some deep-water fish migrate to shallow depths beneath sea ice to exploit the elevated concentrations of some zooplankton there. The increased secondary production associated with pack ice and the sea-ice edge is exploited by many higher predators, with seals, seabirds and whales aggregating there. As a result, much of the Southern Ocean pelagic whaling was concentrated at the edge of the marginal ice zone. The extent and duration of sea ice fluctuate periodically under the influence of global climatic phenomena including the El Nino Southern Oscillation. Life cycles of some associated species may reflect this periodicity. With evidence for climatic warming in some regions of Antarctica, there is concern that ecosystem change may be induced by changes in sea-ice extent. The relative abundance of krill and salps appears to change interannually with sea-ice extent, and in warm years, when salps proliferate, krill are scarce and dependent predators suffer severely. Further research on the Southern Ocean sea-ice system is required, not only to further our basic understanding of the ecology, but also to provide ecosystem managers with the information necessary for the development of strategies in response to short- and medium-term environmental changes in Antarctica. Technological advances are delivering new sampling platforms such as autonomous underwater vehicles that are improving vastly our ability to sample the Antarctic under sea-ice environment. Data from such platforms will enhance greatly our understanding of the globally important Southern Ocean sea-ice ecosystem.  
  Address Gatty Marine Laboratory, School of Biology, University of St Andrews, Fife, KY16 8LB, UK. andrew.brierley@st-andrews.ac.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0065-2881 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:12154613 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 317  
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Author Dieckmann, G.S.; Eicken, H.; Haas, C.; Garrison, D.L.; Gleitz, M.; Lange, M.; Nöthig, E.-M.; Spindler, M.; Sullivan, C.W.; Thomas, D.N.; Weissenberger, J. isbn  openurl
  Title A compilation of data on sea ice algal standing crop from the Bellingshausen, Amundsen and Weddell Seas from 1983 to 1994 Type Book Chapter
  Year 1998 Publication Antarctic sea ice: Biological processes, interactions and variability Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue (up) Pages 85-92  
  Keywords Algae; Biomass; Ecology; Ice composition; Antarctica; Bellingshausen Sea; Amundsen Sea; Weddell Sea  
  Abstract Algal standing stock as chlorophyll a in sea ice was compiled from 448 cores collected during 13 U.S. and German research cruises to Antarctica between 1983 and 1994. The data have a high variability and show no clear relationships with other parameters such as core length. However, seasonal variations in standing stock are discernable. The authors recommend that due to the high variability in the data and inconsistency of sampling methods, the data be used with caution, since they do not represent all sea ice habitats. We provide the data due to the current need for such information for the parameterization of models.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher American Geophysical Union Place of Publication Washington, DC Editor Lizotte, M.P.; Arrigo, K.R.  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Antarctic Research Series Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume 73 Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN 0-87590-901-9 Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ admin @ Dieckmann++1998 Serial 731  
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Author Kattner, G.; Thomas, D.N.; Haas, C.; Kennedy, H.; Dieckmann, G.S. url  openurl
  Title Surface ice and gap layers in Antarctic sea ice: highly productive habitats Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Marine Ecology Progress Series Abbreviated Journal Mar Ecol Prog Ser  
  Volume 277 Issue (up) Pages 1-12  
  Keywords Antarctic sea ice; Gap layers; Biogeochemistry; Particulate organic matter; Dissolved organic matter; Chlorophyll a; Nutrients  
  Abstract Biogeochemical investigations of the upper layers of sea ice were made on layered summer ice floes collected from the Weddell Sea, Antarctica, from mid-February to March 1997. The surface layers had a clearly defined bottom layer immediately overlying a gap filled with seawater. Generally the gap covered rotten sea ice below. Using differences in algal biomass, mostly in the bottom layer of the surface ice overlying the gap, the floes were classified as low, moderate or high biomass. In addition, a floe with a re-frozen gap layer was studied. In the floes with the highest biomass, particulate organic carbon (POC) and nitrogen (PON) reached concentrations of up to 6000 µMC and 600 µMN in the bottom layer. In the upper part of the surface ice layer and the gap water, particulate and dissolved organic matter concentrations (POM, DOM) were clearly lower. High concentrations of POM were generally accompanied by high values of DOM although POM values generally exceeded DOM. All C and N contents of organic matter were significantly correlated. In gap waters, POM was low but still clearly higher than in the surrounding seawater, whereas DOM was in the range of seawater concentrations. Most POC/PON and C/chlorophyll a ratios pointed to an actively growing algae community, whereas the higher and more variable DOC/DON ratios reflected the various sources influencing DOM composition. Nitrate and silicate closely followed the signature of salinity, reaching in some gap water samples values similar to seawater concentrations. In some samples, in particular from the upper part of the surface ice layer, nitrate was totally exhausted. The distribution of the regenerated nutrients ammonium and phosphate was totally different from that of nitrate and silicate, reaching values of up to 15.9 and 9.08 µM, respectively. The bottom ice layer of the floe with the re-frozen gap layer had a high biomass similar to that of the high-biomass ice floe. DOC concentrations were lower, and DON maximum was not clearly linked with DOC maximum, but instead was associated with high ammonium and phosphate concentrations. The significant correlations between POM and DOM as well as between nitrate and silicate and between the regenerated nutrients ammonium and phosphate indicate that the gap-layer floes are semi-enclosed, highly productive habitats that still maintain high biomass during freezing. They are ubiquitous in the Antarctic pack-ice zone and important features that support high algae standing stocks.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Inter-Research Place of Publication Oldendorf/Luhe Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0171-8630 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ admin @ Kattner++2004 Serial 745  
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Author Kennedy, H.; Thomas, D.N.; Kattner, G.; Haas, C.; Dieckmann, G.S. url  openurl
  Title Particulate organic matter in Antarctic summer sea ice: concentration and stable isotopic composition Type Journal Article
  Year 2002 Publication Marine Ecology Progress Series Abbreviated Journal Mar Ecol Prog Ser  
  Volume 238 Issue (up) Pages 1-13  
  Keywords Pom; Anarctic sea ice; ice microalgae; carbon isotopic composition  
  Abstract The chemical and isotopic data from sea ice collected over a wide area of the Weddell Sea, Antarctica, during the austral summer/early autumn illustrate the range of environmental conditions under which ice algae grow. A range of ice types and features were sampled including intact and layered ice floes and surface ponds. Sea ice communities were found in all these environments but the highest biomasses were found either at the base of ice floes, or in the interior of layered floes with quasi-continuous horizontal gaps at or shortly below the water level. In the layered floes, particulate organic carbon (POC) measured in the ice layer immediately overlying the gap water (280 to 6014 µmol dm?³) was in excess of what would be predicted if algal growth had occurred in a closed environment. The chemical composition of the gap water was strongly affected by biological activity in the overlying ice, which acts as a physical support for the algae retained within its matrix. The lowest range of POC (27 to 739 µmol dm?³) conformed to predictions of algal growth in a closed system and samples were collected from the interior of ice floes where there was essentially no potential for nutrient exchange. The surface ponds displayed nitrate (NO³?) exhaustion and total dissolved inorganic carbon (?CO?) reductions consistent with nutrient limited algal growth. The stable carbon isotopic composition of the particulate organic matter (POM) across all habitat types sampled (?¹³CPOC -10.0 to -27.3?) displayed a wide range but was much less variable than the range of POC concentrations might have implied. The assumption that the highest biomass of algae in sea ice will result in the most positive ?¹³CPOC values cannot be generally applied. The isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic carbon (?¹³C?CO?) in gap waters and surface ponds varied from 0.15 to 3.0? and was shown to be commensurate with the changes predicted from NO³? deficits caused by algal growth.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Inter-Research Place of Publication Oldendorf/Luhe Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0171-8630 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ admin @ Kennedy++2002 Serial 746  
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