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Author Steffens, M.; Granskog, M.A.; Kaartokallio, H.; Kuosa, H.; Luodekari, K.; Papadimitriou, S.; Thomas, D.N. openurl 
  Title Spatial variation of biogeochemical properties of landfast sea ice in the Gulf of Bothnia, Baltic Sea Type Conference Article
  Year 2006 Publication Proceedings of the International Symposium on Sea Ice, Dunedin (New Zealand), 5-9 Dec 2005 Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 80-87  
  Keywords  
  Abstract  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher International Glaciological Society Place of Publication Cambridge Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Annals of Glaciology Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume 44 Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN (up) Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ admin @ Steffens2006 Serial 17396  
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Author Steffens, M.; Granskog, M.A.; Kaartokallio, H.; Kuosa, H.; Luodekari, K.; Papadimitriou, S.; Thomas, D.N. openurl 
  Title Spatial variation of biogeochemical properties of landfast sea ice in the Gulf of Bothnia, Baltic Sea Type Conference Article
  Year 2006 Publication Proceedings of the International Symposium on Sea Ice, Dunedin (New Zealand), 5-9 Dec 2005 Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 80-87  
  Keywords  
  Abstract  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher International Glaciological Society Place of Publication Cambridge Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Annals of Glaciology Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume 44 Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN (up) Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ admin @ Steffens2006 Serial 17407  
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Author Granskog, M.; Kaartokallio, H.; Kuosa, H.; Thomas, D.N.; Vainio, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Sea ice in the Baltic Sea – A review Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science Abbreviated Journal Estuar Coast Shelf Sci  
  Volume 70 Issue 1-2 Pages 145-160  
  Keywords sea ice; Baltic Sea; biogeochemistry; plankton; seasons  
  Abstract Although the seasonal ice cover of the Baltic Sea has many similarities to its oceanic counterpart in Polar Seas and Oceans, there are many unique characteristics that mainly result from the brackish waters from which the ice is formed, resulting in low bulk salinities and porosities. In addition, due to the milder climate than Polar regions, the annual maximum ice extent is highly variable, and rain and freeze-melt cycles can occur throughout winter. Up to 35% of the sea ice mass can be composed from metamorphic snow, rather than frozen seawater, and in places snow and superimposed ice can make up to 50% of the total ice thickness. There is pronounced atmospheric deposition of inorganic nutrients and heavy metals onto the ice, and in the Bothnian Bay it is estimated that 5% of the total annual flux of nitrogen and phosphorus and 20–40% of lead and cadmium may be deposited onto the ice fields from the atmosphere. It is yet unclear whether or not the ice is simply a passive store for atmospherically deposited compounds, or if they are transformed through photochemical processes or biological accumulation before released at ice and snow melt.As in Polar sea ice, the Baltic ice can harbour rich biological assemblages, both within the ice itself, and on the peripheries of the ice at the ice/water interface. Much progress has been made in recent years to study the composition of these assemblages as well as measuring biogeochemical processes within the ice related to those in underlying waters. The high dissolved organic matter loading of Baltic waters and ice result in the ice having quite different chemical characteristics than those known from Polar Oceans. The high dissolved organic material load is also responsible in large degree to shape the optical properties of Baltic Sea ice, with high absorption of solar radiation at shorter wavelengths, a prerequisite for active photochemistry of dissolved organic matter.Land-fast ice in the Baltic also greatly alters the mixing characteristics of river waters flowing into coastal waters. River plumes extend under the ice to a much greater distance, and with greater stability than in ice-free conditions. Under-ice plumes not only alter the mixing properties of the waters, but also result in changed ice growth dynamics, and ice biological assemblages, with the underside of the ice being encased, in the extreme case, with a frozen freshwater layer.There is a pronounced gradient in ice types from more saline ice in the south to freshwater ice in the north. The former is characteristically more porous and supports more ice-associated biology than the latter. Ice conditions also vary considerably in different parts of the Baltic Sea, with ice persisting for over half a year in the northernmost part of the Baltic Sea, the Bothnian Bay. In the southern Baltic Sea, ice appears only during severe winters.  
  Address Granskog: Arctic Centre, University of Lapland, P.O. Box 122, FI-96101 Rovaniemi, Finland  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Elsevier Science BV Place of Publication Amsterdam Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0272-7714 ISBN (up) Medium  
  Area Baltic Sea Expedition Conference  
  Notes Review Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ admin @ Granskog++2006 Serial 738  
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Author Granskog, M.A.; Kaartokallio, H.; Kuosa, H.; Thomas, D.N.; Ehn, J.; Sonninen, E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Scales of horizontal patchiness in chlorophyll a, chemical and physical properties of landfast sea ice in the Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea) Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Polar Biology Abbreviated Journal Polar Biol  
  Volume 28 Issue 4 Pages 276-283  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Horizontal variation of first-year landfast sea ice properties was studied in the Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Sea. Several scales of variation were considered; a number of arrays with core spacings of 0.2, 2 and 20 m were sampled at different stages of the ice season for small-scale patchiness. Spacing between these arrays was from hundreds of meters to kilometers to study mesoscale variability, and once an onshore–offshore 40-km transect was sampled to study regional scale variability. Measured variables included salinity, stable oxygen isotopes (δ18O), chlorophyll a (chl-a), nutrients and dissolved organic carbon. On a large scale, a combination of variations in the under-ice water salinity (ice porosity), nutrient supply and the stage of ice development control the build-up of ice algal biomass. At scales of hundreds of meters to kilometers, there was significant variability in several parameters (salinity, chl-a, snow depth and ice thickness). Analyses of the data from the arrays did not show evidence of significant patchiness at scales <20 m for algal biomass. The results imply that the sampling effort in Baltic Sea ice studies should be concentrated on scales of hundreds of meters to kilometers. Using the variations observed in the study area, the estimate for depth-integrated algal biomass in landfast sea ice in the Gulf of Finland (March 2003) is 5.5±4.4 mg chl-a m-2.  
  Address Granskog: Arctic Centre, University of Lapland, P.O. Box 122, 96101 Rovaniemi, Finland  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Springer-Verlag Place of Publication Heidelberg Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0722-4060 ISBN (up) Medium  
  Area Baltic Sea; Gulf of Finland Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ admin @ Granskog++2005 Serial 739  
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Author Granskog, M.A.; Kaartokallio, H.; Thomas, D.N.; Kuosa, H. url  openurl
  Title Influence of freshwater inflow on the inorganic nutrient and dissolved organic matter within coastal sea ice and underlying waters in the Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea) Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science Abbreviated Journal Estuar Coast Shelf Sci  
  Volume 65 Issue 1-2 Pages 109-122  
  Keywords coastal oceanography; sea ice; river plumes; estuarine chemistry; nutrients (mineral); dissolved organic matter; Baltic Sea  
  Abstract A study was conducted to measure the biogeochemical characteristics of freshwater plumes underlying Baltic Sea land-fast ice, and the overlying sea ice. A 40-km long transect was conducted in the northern Baltic Sea in March 2003, following a freshwater plume from its source into the fully mixed open-sea area. The spreading of river outflow below the ice resulted in a well-stratified low-salinity surface layer further out than normally occurs in the open-water period. The freshwaters were high in dissolved organic matter (DOC, DON and CDOM), and inorganic nutrients (ammonium, nitrate and silicate), although the levels of phosphate were low. In general these parameters changed concurrently with salinity in such a way that mixing was conservative. The characteristics of the ice varied from the freshwater source to the open water, with increasing salinity and brine volumes (porosity) occurring in the more open-sea stations. Coinciding with the changes in ice properties there was an increase in sea-ice algal growth in the more marine stations along the transect. Biological activity in the ice was largely confined to bottom ice assemblages. In contrast to the conditions in the underlying water, no relationship between salinity, inorganic nutrients and organic matter was observed in the ice. In particular ammonium, phosphate, DOC and DON were present in excess of those levels predicted from the dilution curves, indicating the presence of considerable DOM production by ice assemblages, inorganic nutrient uptake and remineralization within the ice.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Academic Press Place of Publication San Diego Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0272-7714 ISBN (up) Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Sampling: Nine stations along a 40km salinity gradient from inner Pojo Bay through the Archipelago to the edge of the open sea Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ admin @ Granskog++2005_2 Serial 740  
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