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Author Kaartokallio, H.; Kuosa, H.; Thomas, D.N.; Granskog, M.A.; Kivi, K. url  openurl
  Title Biomass, composition and activity of organism assemblages along a salinity gradient in sea ice subjected to river discharge in the Baltic Sea Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Polar Biology Abbreviated Journal Polar Biol  
  Volume 30 Issue 2 Pages (down) 183-197  
  Keywords  
  Abstract A study was undertaken to examine the activity and composition of the seasonal Baltic Sea land-fast sea-ice biota along a salinity gradient in March 2003 in a coastal location in the SW coast of Finland. Using a multi-variable data set, the less well-known algal and protozoan communities, and algal and bacterial production in relation to the physical and chemical environment were investigated. Also, the first coincident measurements of bacterial production and dissolved organic matter (DOM) in a sea-ice system are reported. Communities in sea ice were clearly autotrophy-dominated with algal biomass representing 79% of the total biomass. Protozoa and rotifers made up 18% of biomass in the ice and bacteria only 3%. Highest biomasses were found in mid-transect bottom ice. Water column assemblages were clearly more heterotrophic: 39% algae, 12% bacteria and 49% for rotifers and protozoa. Few significant correlations existed between DOM and bacterial variables, reflecting the complex origin of ice DOM. Dynamics of dissolved organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus (DOC, DON and DOP) were also uncoupled. A functional microbial loop is likely to be present in the studied ice. Existence of an under-ice freshwater plume affects the ecosystem functioning: Under-ice water communities are influenced directly by river-water mixing, whereas the ice system seems to be more independent–the interaction mainly taking place through the formation of active bottom communities.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Springer-Verlag Place of Publication Heidelberg Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0722-4060 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Sampling: Nine stations along a 40km salinity gradient from inner Pojo Bay through the Archipelago to the edge of the open sea Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ admin @ Kaartokallio++2006 Serial 744  
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Author Brierley, A.S.; Thomas, D.N. openurl 
  Title Ecology of southern ocean pack ice Type Journal Article
  Year 2002 Publication Advances in marine biology Abbreviated Journal Adv Mar Biol  
  Volume 43 Issue Pages (down) 171-276  
  Keywords Animals; Antarctic Regions; Birds; Crustacea; Ecology; *Ecosystem; Environment; Fishes; *Ice; *Marine Biology; Oceans and Seas; Phytoplankton; Population Dynamics; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Seasons; *Seawater; Water Microbiology; Whales  
  Abstract Around Antarctica the annual five-fold growth and decay of sea ice is the most prominent physical process and has a profound impact on marine life there. In winter the pack ice canopy extends to cover almost 20 million square kilometres--some 8% of the southern hemisphere and an area larger than the Antarctic continent itself (13.2 million square kilometres)--and is one of the largest, most dynamic ecosystems on earth. Biological activity is associated with all physical components of the sea-ice system: the sea-ice surface; the internal sea-ice matrix and brine channel system; the underside of sea ice and the waters in the vicinity of sea ice that are modified by the presence of sea ice. Microbial and microalgal communities proliferate on and within sea ice and are grazed by a wide range of proto- and macrozooplankton that inhabit the sea ice in large concentrations. Grazing organisms also exploit biogenic material released from the sea ice at ice break-up or melt. Although rates of primary production in the underlying water column are often low because of shading by sea-ice cover, sea ice itself forms a substratum that provides standing stocks of bacteria, algae and grazers significantly higher than those in ice-free areas. Decay of sea ice in summer releases particulate and dissolved organic matter to the water column, playing a major role in biogeochemical cycling as well as seeding water column phytoplankton blooms. Numerous zooplankton species graze sea-ice algae, benefiting additionally because the overlying sea-ice ceiling provides a refuge from surface predators. Sea ice is an important nursery habitat for Antarctic krill, the pivotal species in the Southern Ocean marine ecosystem. Some deep-water fish migrate to shallow depths beneath sea ice to exploit the elevated concentrations of some zooplankton there. The increased secondary production associated with pack ice and the sea-ice edge is exploited by many higher predators, with seals, seabirds and whales aggregating there. As a result, much of the Southern Ocean pelagic whaling was concentrated at the edge of the marginal ice zone. The extent and duration of sea ice fluctuate periodically under the influence of global climatic phenomena including the El Nino Southern Oscillation. Life cycles of some associated species may reflect this periodicity. With evidence for climatic warming in some regions of Antarctica, there is concern that ecosystem change may be induced by changes in sea-ice extent. The relative abundance of krill and salps appears to change interannually with sea-ice extent, and in warm years, when salps proliferate, krill are scarce and dependent predators suffer severely. Further research on the Southern Ocean sea-ice system is required, not only to further our basic understanding of the ecology, but also to provide ecosystem managers with the information necessary for the development of strategies in response to short- and medium-term environmental changes in Antarctica. Technological advances are delivering new sampling platforms such as autonomous underwater vehicles that are improving vastly our ability to sample the Antarctic under sea-ice environment. Data from such platforms will enhance greatly our understanding of the globally important Southern Ocean sea-ice ecosystem.  
  Address Gatty Marine Laboratory, School of Biology, University of St Andrews, Fife, KY16 8LB, UK. andrew.brierley@st-andrews.ac.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0065-2881 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:12154613 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 317  
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Author Gomez, I.; Wiencke, C.; Thomas, D.N. url  openurl
  Title Variations in photosynthetic characteristics of the Antarctic marine brown alga Ascoseira mirabilis in relation to thallus age and size Type Journal Article
  Year 1996 Publication European Journal of Phycology Abbreviated Journal Eur J Phycol  
  Volume 31 Issue 2 Pages (down) 167-172  
  Keywords photosynthesis: thallus: carbon fixation; growth curves; algae; age; Thalli; marine flora; Ascoseira mirabilis; Antarctica  
  Abstract Growth, photosynthesis, dark respiration, chlorophyll a (Chl a) content and dry weight were measured in 2- and 3-year-old plants of Ascoseira mirabilis (Ascoseirales), cultivated in the laboratory under changing daylengths which matched the seasonal variations in the Antarctic. Determinations were made in four thallus regions. Growth of A. mirabilis was seasonal, with higher rates in spring. Parameters such as net photosynthesis (P sub(max)), photosynthetic efficiency ( alpha ), both measured on a fresh weight (FW) basis, and dry weight content, showed significant age- and size-dependent variations. In contrast, no variations were observed in dark respiration, initial light-saturating point of photosynthesis (I sub(k)) and Chl a contents. P sub(max) had maximum values close to 16.5 mu mol O sub(2)/g super(1) FW/h in 2-year-old plants, whereas in 3-year-old plants maximum values of 8 mu mol O sub(2)/g FW/h were determined. The alpha -values reached maximum rates of 1.4 and 0.6 mu mol O sub(2)/g FW/h/( mu mol photons/m super(2)/s) in 2- and 3-year-old plants, respectively. Light compensation point (I sub(c)), dry weight ratios and Chl a contents varied significantly along the length of the blade. Maximum dry:fresh weight ratios were observed in the basal region, with values close to 18%. Distal regions of the 3-year-old plants had significantly higher dry weight content than 2-year-old plants (17.5% and 13%, respectively). Chl a concentrations increased towards the middle regions of the thallus to values close to 0.35 mg Chl a/g FW. The results indicate that some morpho-functional processes in A. mirabilis, especially net photosynthesis and photosynthetic efficiency, are governed by age of the plant, thereby reflecting differences in biomass allocation and size. Our data also confirm the previously demonstrated relationship between growth and seasonal physiological activity that allows A. mirabilis to survive under the low light conditions prevailing in the Antarctic.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0967-0262 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes growth curves; size; Thalli; marine flora; thallus Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ admin @ Gomez++1996 Serial 737  
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Author Thomas, D.N.; Lara, R.J.; Haas, C.; Schnack-Schiel, S.B.; Dieckmann, G.S.; Kattner, G.; Nöthig, E.-M.; Mizdalski, E. url  isbn
openurl 
  Title Biological soup within decaying summer sea ice in the Amundsen Sea, Antarctica Type Book Chapter
  Year 1998 Publication Antarctic sea ice: Biological processes, interactions and variability Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages (down) 161-171  
  Keywords Marine biology; Algae; Ice composition; Pack ice; Decomposition; Ecology; Nutrient cycle; Antarctica; Amundsen Sea  
  Abstract In late February 1994, during the ANT XI/3 expedition of R/V Polarstern, ice cores from perennial sea ice were sampled in the Amundsen Sea in areas of dense pack ice. The ice was largely rotten, and a conspicuous feature was the occurrence of thick gaps and voids, often filled with a dark brown slush comprised of loose ice chunks and crystals. These interior ice assemblages were at depths between 1.0 and 1.5 m in 3 to 4 m thick ice floes, and had remarkably rich interior ice algal assemblages (<= 377 µg Chl a L?¹) which were in turn a food source for unusually large numbers of foraminifers (<= 1262 individuals L?¹), the calanoid copepod Stephos longipes (<= 163 individuals L?¹) and harpacticoid copepods (<= 168 individuals L?¹). Analysis of inorganic nutrients (nitrate, phosphate, ammonium, nitrite, and silicate) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) showed that these were sites of high nutrient supply coupled with high rates of nutrient regeneration.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher American Geophysical Union Place of Publication Washington, DC Editor Lizotte, M.P.; Arrigo, K.R.  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Antarctic Research Series Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume 73 Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN 0-87590-901-9 Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ admin @ Thomas++1998 Serial 764  
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Author Gomez, I.; Thomas, D.N.; Wiencke, C. openurl 
  Title Longitudinal profiles of growth, photosynthesis and light independent carbon fixation in the Antarctic brown alga Ascoseira mirabilis Type Journal Article
  Year 1995 Publication Botanica Marina Abbreviated Journal Bot Mar  
  Volume 38 Issue Pages (down) 157-164  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Thallus growth, photoynthetic oxygen evolution and rates of carbon fixation were determinedalong the lamina of the endemic Antarctic brown alga Ascoseira mirabilis (Ascoseirales), grown under simulated Antarctic condtions. The meristem is basally located and forms new blade tiddue under spring-conditions. Light saturated net photosynthesis (P,ax), measures as O? production, was higher in ther intermediate region of the plant (9..8 µmol O? g?¹ fw h?¹). In general, photosynthetic parameters such as dark respiration, gross photosynthesis, photosynthetic efficiency (?) and photosynthetic light compensation (Ic) increased significantly towards the distal region. Carbon-fixation in A. mirabilis also showed thllus-dependent variation. Rates of light and light independent (dark) carbon fixation increased towards the distal regions ranging between 7.6-9.5 and 1.2-2.0 µmol C g?¹ fw h?¹ respectively. The percentage of light independent carbon fixation (in relation to light ¹?C-fixation) also increased from the basal to the distal parts reaching 24% in the distal region of the thallus. he contents of Chl a and Chl c, were close to 0.37 and 0.14 mg g?¹ fw respectively and were notably uniform along the lamina. The results indicate that the formation of the blade by a basal meristem and the increase of light carbon fixation rates from base to the distal regions in A. mirabilis are similar compared with certain Laminariales, especially members of the genus Laminaria. However, light independent carbon fixation is highest in the meristem of Laminaria, opposite to the results obtained here for A. mirabilis  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher de Gruyter Place of Publication Berlin, New York Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ admin @ Gomez++1995 Serial 736  
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