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Author Krell, A.; Ummenhofer, C.; Kattner, G.; Naumov, A.; Evans, D.; Dieckmann, G.S.; Thomas, D.N. openurl 
  Title The biology and chemistry of land fast ice in the White Sea, Russia – A comparison of winter and spring conditions Type Miscellaneous
  Year 2003 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
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  Abstract Various abiotic and biotic parameters, including phytoplankton distribution, were studied to investigate seasonal changes within the fast-ice cover in Chupa Inlet, a freshwater-influenced Arctic-like fjord in Kandalaksha Bay (White Sea). Sea ice and under-ice water were collected along transects in the inlet in February and April 2002. Ice-texture analysis, salinity and δ18O values indicated that the complete ice sheet had transformed within 2 months. This resulted from an upward growth of snow ice and subsequent melting at the underside of the ice, which makes a comparison between the two sampling periods difficult in terms of defining temporal developments within the ice. Nutrients, DOC and DON concentrations in the under-ice water were typical for Russian Arctic rivers. Concentrations of nitrate, silicate and DOC in the ice were lower, which is attributed to a loss as the ice forms. The concentrations were also modified by biological activity. In February, there was a strong correspondence between the distribution of biological parameters, including particulate and dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen (POC and PON, DOC and DON) and inorganic nutrients (nitrate, nitrite, phosphate and silicate), which was not the case in April. The correlation between both DOC and DON with ammonium indicates heterotrophic activity within the winter ice collected in February. Sea-ice organisms were distributed throughout the ice, and several assemblages were found in surface layers of the ice. In April, a more typical distribution of biomass in the ice was measured, with low values in the upper part and high algal concentrations in the lower sections of the ice, characteristic of a spring ice-algal bloom. In contrast to the February sampling, there was evidence that the ice-algal assemblage in April was nitrogen-limited, with total inorganic nitrogen concentrations being  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ admin @ Krell++2003 Serial 15285  
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Author Steffens, M.; Granskog, M.A.; Kaartokallio, H.; Kuosa, H.; Luodekari, K.; Papadimitriou, S.; Thomas, D.N. openurl 
  Title Spatial variation of biogeochemical properties of landfast sea ice in the Gulf of Bothnia, Baltic Sea Type Conference Article
  Year 2006 Publication Proceedings of the International Symposium on Sea Ice, Dunedin (New Zealand), 5-9 Dec 2005 Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 80-87  
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  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher International Glaciological Society Place of Publication Cambridge Editor (up)  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Annals of Glaciology Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume 44 Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ admin @ Steffens2006 Serial 17385  
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Author Steffens, M.; Granskog, M.A.; Kaartokallio, H.; Kuosa, H.; Luodekari, K.; Papadimitriou, S.; Thomas, D.N. openurl 
  Title Spatial variation of biogeochemical properties of landfast sea ice in the Gulf of Bothnia, Baltic Sea Type Conference Article
  Year 2006 Publication Proceedings of the International Symposium on Sea Ice, Dunedin (New Zealand), 5-9 Dec 2005 Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 80-87  
  Keywords  
  Abstract  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher International Glaciological Society Place of Publication Cambridge Editor (up)  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Annals of Glaciology Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume 44 Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ admin @ Steffens2006 Serial 17396  
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Author Steffens, M.; Granskog, M.A.; Kaartokallio, H.; Kuosa, H.; Luodekari, K.; Papadimitriou, S.; Thomas, D.N. openurl 
  Title Spatial variation of biogeochemical properties of landfast sea ice in the Gulf of Bothnia, Baltic Sea Type Conference Article
  Year 2006 Publication Proceedings of the International Symposium on Sea Ice, Dunedin (New Zealand), 5-9 Dec 2005 Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 80-87  
  Keywords  
  Abstract  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher International Glaciological Society Place of Publication Cambridge Editor (up)  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Annals of Glaciology Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume 44 Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ admin @ Steffens2006 Serial 17407  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Granskog, M.; Kaartokallio, H.; Kuosa, H.; Thomas, D.N.; Vainio, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Sea ice in the Baltic Sea – A review Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science Abbreviated Journal Estuar Coast Shelf Sci  
  Volume 70 Issue 1-2 Pages 145-160  
  Keywords sea ice; Baltic Sea; biogeochemistry; plankton; seasons  
  Abstract Although the seasonal ice cover of the Baltic Sea has many similarities to its oceanic counterpart in Polar Seas and Oceans, there are many unique characteristics that mainly result from the brackish waters from which the ice is formed, resulting in low bulk salinities and porosities. In addition, due to the milder climate than Polar regions, the annual maximum ice extent is highly variable, and rain and freeze-melt cycles can occur throughout winter. Up to 35% of the sea ice mass can be composed from metamorphic snow, rather than frozen seawater, and in places snow and superimposed ice can make up to 50% of the total ice thickness. There is pronounced atmospheric deposition of inorganic nutrients and heavy metals onto the ice, and in the Bothnian Bay it is estimated that 5% of the total annual flux of nitrogen and phosphorus and 20–40% of lead and cadmium may be deposited onto the ice fields from the atmosphere. It is yet unclear whether or not the ice is simply a passive store for atmospherically deposited compounds, or if they are transformed through photochemical processes or biological accumulation before released at ice and snow melt.As in Polar sea ice, the Baltic ice can harbour rich biological assemblages, both within the ice itself, and on the peripheries of the ice at the ice/water interface. Much progress has been made in recent years to study the composition of these assemblages as well as measuring biogeochemical processes within the ice related to those in underlying waters. The high dissolved organic matter loading of Baltic waters and ice result in the ice having quite different chemical characteristics than those known from Polar Oceans. The high dissolved organic material load is also responsible in large degree to shape the optical properties of Baltic Sea ice, with high absorption of solar radiation at shorter wavelengths, a prerequisite for active photochemistry of dissolved organic matter.Land-fast ice in the Baltic also greatly alters the mixing characteristics of river waters flowing into coastal waters. River plumes extend under the ice to a much greater distance, and with greater stability than in ice-free conditions. Under-ice plumes not only alter the mixing properties of the waters, but also result in changed ice growth dynamics, and ice biological assemblages, with the underside of the ice being encased, in the extreme case, with a frozen freshwater layer.There is a pronounced gradient in ice types from more saline ice in the south to freshwater ice in the north. The former is characteristically more porous and supports more ice-associated biology than the latter. Ice conditions also vary considerably in different parts of the Baltic Sea, with ice persisting for over half a year in the northernmost part of the Baltic Sea, the Bothnian Bay. In the southern Baltic Sea, ice appears only during severe winters.  
  Address Granskog: Arctic Centre, University of Lapland, P.O. Box 122, FI-96101 Rovaniemi, Finland  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Elsevier Science BV Place of Publication Amsterdam Editor (up)  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0272-7714 ISBN Medium  
  Area Baltic Sea Expedition Conference  
  Notes Review Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ admin @ Granskog++2006 Serial 738  
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