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Author Thomas, D.N.; Dieckmann, G.S. (eds) url  isbn
openurl 
  Title Sea ice – an introduction to its physics, chemistry, biology and geology Type Book Whole
  Year 2003 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 402 pp  
  Keywords Sea Ice  
  Abstract Sea ice, which covers up to 7% of the planet's surface, is a major component of the world's oceans, partly driving ocean circulation and global climate patterns. It provides a habitat for a rich diversity of marine organisms, and is a valuable source of information in studies of global climate change and the evolution of present day life forms. Increasingly, sea ice is being used as a proxy for extraterrestrial ice covered systems.

Sea Ice provides a comprehensive review of our current available knowledge of polar pack ice, the study of which is severely constrained by the logistic difficulties of working in such harsh and remote regions of the earth. The book's editors, Drs Thomas and Dieckmann have drawn together an impressive group of international contributing authors, providing a well-edited and integrated volume, which will stand for many years as the standard work on the subject. Contents of the book include details of the growth, microstructure and properties of sea ice, large-scale variations in thickness and characteristics, its primary production, micro-and macrobiology, sea ice as a habitat for birds and mammals, sea ice biogeochemistry, particulate flux, and the distribution and significance of palaeo sea ice.
 
  Address (down) Thomas: School of Ocean Sciences, University of Wales, Bangor, UK; Dieckmann: Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Blackwell Science Ltd Place of Publication Oxford Editor Thomas, D.N.; Dieckmann, G.S.  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN 0-632-05808-0 Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes 40 Illustrations Approved yes  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ library-34/436/1 Serial 7  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Hulatt, C.J.; Thomas, D.N. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in microalgal photobioreactors: a potential loss in solar energy conversion? Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Bioresource Technology Abbreviated Journal Bioresour Technol  
  Volume 101 Issue 22 Pages 8690-8697  
  Keywords Bioreactors/*microbiology; Chlorella vulgaris/*physiology; Culture Media/chemistry; *Electric Power Supplies; Energy Transfer; Organic Chemicals/*chemistry/*metabolism; Photochemistry/*instrumentation; Solubility  
  Abstract Microalgae are considered to be a potential alternative to terrestrial crops for bio-energy production due to their relatively high productivity per unit area of land. In this work we examined the amount of dissolved organic matter exuded by algal cells cultured in photobioreactors, to examine whether a significant fraction of the photoassimilated biomass could potentially be lost from the harvestable biomass. We found that the mean maximum amount of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) released measured 6.4% and 17.3% of the total organic carbon in cultures of Chlorellavulgaris and Dunaliella tertiolecta, respectively. This DOM in turn supported a significant growth of bacterial biomass, representing a further loss of the algal assimilated carbon. The release of these levels of DOC indicates that a significant fraction of the photosynthetically fixed organic matter could be lost into the surrounding water, suggesting that the actual biomass yield per hectare for industrial purposes could be somewhat less than expected. A simple and inexpensive optical technique, based on chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) measurements, to monitor such losses in commercial PBRs is discussed.  
  Address (down) School of Ocean Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Bangor University, Menai Bridge, Anglesey, UK. osp418@bangor.ac.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0960-8524 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:20634058 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 12981  
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Author Hulatt, C.J.; Thomas, D.N. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Productivity, carbon dioxide uptake and net energy return of microalgal bubble column photobioreactors Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Bioresource Technology Abbreviated Journal Bioresour Technol  
  Volume 102 Issue 10 Pages 5775-5787  
  Keywords *Bioreactors; Carbon Dioxide/*metabolism; Energy Metabolism; Equipment Design; Microalgae/growth & development/*metabolism; Photochemistry  
  Abstract This work examined the energy return of Chlorella vulgaris and Dunaliella tertiolecta cultivated in a gas-sparged photobioreactor design where the power input for sparging was manipulated (10, 20, and 50 Wm(-3)). Dry weight, organic carbon and heating values of the biomass were measured, plus a suite of variables including Fv/Fm and dissolved oxygen. A model for predicting the higher heating value of microalgal biomass was developed and used to measure the energetic performance of batch cultivations. High power inputs enhanced maximum biomass yields, but did not improve the energy return. Cultivation in 10 Wm(-3) showed up to a 39% higher cumulative net energy return than 50 Wm(-3), and increased the cumulative net energy ratio up to fourfold. The highest net energy ratio for power input was 19.3 (D. tertiolecta, 12% CO(2), 10 Wm(-3)). These systems may be a sustainable method of biomass production, but their effectiveness is sensitive to operational parameters.  
  Address (down) School of Ocean Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Bangor University, Askew Street, Menai Bridge, Isle of Anglesey LL59 5AB, UK. osp418@bangor.ac.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0960-8524 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:21376576 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 12983  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Hulatt, C.J.; Thomas, D.N. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Energy efficiency of an outdoor microalgal photobioreactor sited at mid-temperate latitude Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Bioresource Technology Abbreviated Journal Bioresour Technol  
  Volume 102 Issue 12 Pages 6687-6695  
  Keywords Biomass; *Bioreactors; Climate; Geography; Microalgae/growth & development/*metabolism; Oxygen/metabolism; Scenedesmus/growth & development/*metabolism; Seasons; Solar Energy  
  Abstract This work examined the energetic performance of a 6-month semi-continuous cultivation of Scenedesmus obliquus in an outdoor photobioreactor at mid-temperate latitude, without temperature control. By measuring the seasonal biomass production (mean 11.31, range 1.39-23.67 g m(-2)d(-1)), higher heating value (22.94 kJ g(-1)) and solar irradiance, the mean seasonally-averaged photosynthetic efficiency (2.18%) and gross energy productivity (0.27 MJ m(-2) d(-1)) was calculated. When comparing the solar energy conversion efficiency to the energy investment for culture circulation, significant improvements in reactor energy input must be made to make the system viable. Using the data collected to model the energetic performance of a substitute photobioreactor design, we conclude that sustainable photobioreactor cultivation of microalgae in similar temperate climates requires a short light path and low power input, only reasonably obtained by flat-panel systems. However, temperature control was not necessary for effective long-term cultivation.  
  Address (down) School of Ocean Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Bangor University, Askew Street, Menai Bridge, Anglesey LL59 5AB, UK. osp418@bangor.ac.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0960-8524 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:21511466 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 12984  
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Author Underwood, G.J.C.; Aslam, S.N.; Michel, C.; Niemi, A.; Norman, L.; Meiners, K.M.; Laybourn-Parry, J.; Paterson, H.; Thomas, D.N. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Broad-scale predictability of carbohydrates and exopolymers in Antarctic and Arctic sea ice Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A  
  Volume 110 Issue 39 Pages 15734-15739  
  Keywords Antarctic Regions; Arctic Regions; Biopolymers/*analysis; Carbohydrates/*analysis; Ice Cover/*chemistry; Models, Chemical; Molecular Weight; Solubility; algae; biogeochemistry; global relationships; microbial  
  Abstract Sea ice can contain high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), much of which is carbohydrate-rich extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) produced by microalgae and bacteria inhabiting the ice. Here we report the concentrations of dissolved carbohydrates (dCHO) and dissolved EPS (dEPS) in relation to algal standing stock [estimated by chlorophyll (Chl) a concentrations] in sea ice from six locations in the Southern and Arctic Oceans. Concentrations varied substantially within and between sampling sites, reflecting local ice conditions and biological content. However, combining all data revealed robust statistical relationships between dCHO concentrations and the concentrations of different dEPS fractions, Chl a, and DOC. These relationships were true for whole ice cores, bottom ice (biomass rich) sections, and colder surface ice. The distribution of dEPS was strongly correlated to algal biomass, with the highest concentrations of both dEPS and non-EPS carbohydrates in the bottom horizons of the ice. Complex EPS was more prevalent in colder surface sea ice horizons. Predictive models (validated against independent data) were derived to enable the estimation of dCHO concentrations from data on ice thickness, salinity, and vertical position in core. When Chl a data were included a higher level of prediction was obtained. The consistent patterns reflected in these relationships provide a strong basis for including estimates of regional and seasonal carbohydrate and dEPS carbon budgets in coupled physical-biogeochemical models, across different types of sea ice from both polar regions.  
  Address (down) School of Biological Sciences, University of Essex, Colchester, Essex CO4 3SQ, United Kingdom  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher National Academy of Sciences Place of Publication Washington, DC Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0027-8424 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:24019487; PMCID:PMC3785782 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 17491  
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