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Author Brierley, A.S.; Thomas, D.N. openurl 
  Title Ecology of southern ocean pack ice Type Journal Article
  Year 2002 Publication Advances in marine biology Abbreviated Journal Adv Mar Biol  
  Volume 43 Issue Pages 171-276  
  Keywords Animals; Antarctic Regions; Birds; Crustacea; Ecology; *Ecosystem; Environment; Fishes; *Ice; *Marine Biology; Oceans and Seas; Phytoplankton; Population Dynamics; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Seasons; *Seawater; Water Microbiology; Whales  
  Abstract (up) Around Antarctica the annual five-fold growth and decay of sea ice is the most prominent physical process and has a profound impact on marine life there. In winter the pack ice canopy extends to cover almost 20 million square kilometres--some 8% of the southern hemisphere and an area larger than the Antarctic continent itself (13.2 million square kilometres)--and is one of the largest, most dynamic ecosystems on earth. Biological activity is associated with all physical components of the sea-ice system: the sea-ice surface; the internal sea-ice matrix and brine channel system; the underside of sea ice and the waters in the vicinity of sea ice that are modified by the presence of sea ice. Microbial and microalgal communities proliferate on and within sea ice and are grazed by a wide range of proto- and macrozooplankton that inhabit the sea ice in large concentrations. Grazing organisms also exploit biogenic material released from the sea ice at ice break-up or melt. Although rates of primary production in the underlying water column are often low because of shading by sea-ice cover, sea ice itself forms a substratum that provides standing stocks of bacteria, algae and grazers significantly higher than those in ice-free areas. Decay of sea ice in summer releases particulate and dissolved organic matter to the water column, playing a major role in biogeochemical cycling as well as seeding water column phytoplankton blooms. Numerous zooplankton species graze sea-ice algae, benefiting additionally because the overlying sea-ice ceiling provides a refuge from surface predators. Sea ice is an important nursery habitat for Antarctic krill, the pivotal species in the Southern Ocean marine ecosystem. Some deep-water fish migrate to shallow depths beneath sea ice to exploit the elevated concentrations of some zooplankton there. The increased secondary production associated with pack ice and the sea-ice edge is exploited by many higher predators, with seals, seabirds and whales aggregating there. As a result, much of the Southern Ocean pelagic whaling was concentrated at the edge of the marginal ice zone. The extent and duration of sea ice fluctuate periodically under the influence of global climatic phenomena including the El Nino Southern Oscillation. Life cycles of some associated species may reflect this periodicity. With evidence for climatic warming in some regions of Antarctica, there is concern that ecosystem change may be induced by changes in sea-ice extent. The relative abundance of krill and salps appears to change interannually with sea-ice extent, and in warm years, when salps proliferate, krill are scarce and dependent predators suffer severely. Further research on the Southern Ocean sea-ice system is required, not only to further our basic understanding of the ecology, but also to provide ecosystem managers with the information necessary for the development of strategies in response to short- and medium-term environmental changes in Antarctica. Technological advances are delivering new sampling platforms such as autonomous underwater vehicles that are improving vastly our ability to sample the Antarctic under sea-ice environment. Data from such platforms will enhance greatly our understanding of the globally important Southern Ocean sea-ice ecosystem.  
  Address Gatty Marine Laboratory, School of Biology, University of St Andrews, Fife, KY16 8LB, UK. andrew.brierley@st-andrews.ac.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0065-2881 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:12154613 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 317  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Lakaniemi, A.-M.; Hulatt, C.J.; Thomas, D.N.; Tuovinen, O.H.; Puhakka, J.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Biogenic hydrogen and methane production from Chlorella vulgaris and Dunaliella tertiolecta biomass Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Biotechnology for Biofuels Abbreviated Journal Biotechnol Biofuels  
  Volume 4 Issue 1 Pages 34  
  Keywords  
  Abstract (up) BACKGROUND: Microalgae are a promising feedstock for biofuel and bioenergy production due to their high photosynthetic efficiencies, high growth rates and no need for external organic carbon supply. In this study, utilization of Chlorella vulgaris (a fresh water microalga) and Dunaliella tertiolecta (a marine microalga) biomass was tested as a feedstock for anaerobic H2 and CH4 production. RESULTS: Anaerobic serum bottle assays were conducted at 37 degrees C with enrichment cultures derived from municipal anaerobic digester sludge. Low levels of H2 were produced by anaerobic enrichment cultures, but H2 was subsequently consumed even in the presence of 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid, an inhibitor of methanogens. Without inoculation, algal biomass still produced H2 due to the activities of satellite bacteria associated with algal cultures. CH4 was produced from both types of biomass with anaerobic enrichments. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiling indicated the presence of H2-producing and H2-consuming bacteria in the anaerobic enrichment cultures and the presence of H2-producing bacteria among the satellite bacteria in both sources of algal biomass. CONCLUSIONS: H2 production by the satellite bacteria was comparable from D. tertiolecta (12.6 ml H2/g volatile solids (VS)) and from C. vulgaris (10.8 ml H2/g VS), whereas CH4 production was significantly higher from C. vulgaris (286 ml/g VS) than from D. tertiolecta (24 ml/g VS). The high salinity of the D. tertiolecta slurry, prohibitive to methanogens, was the probable reason for lower CH4 production.  
  Address Department of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Tampere University of Technology, PO Box 541, FI-33101 Tampere, Finland. aino-maija.lakaniemi@tut.fi  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1754-6834 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:21943287; PMCID:PMC3193024 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 12985  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Kattner, G.; Thomas, D.N.; Haas, C.; Kennedy, H.; Dieckmann, G.S. url  openurl
  Title Surface ice and gap layers in Antarctic sea ice: highly productive habitats Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Marine Ecology Progress Series Abbreviated Journal Mar Ecol Prog Ser  
  Volume 277 Issue Pages 1-12  
  Keywords Antarctic sea ice; Gap layers; Biogeochemistry; Particulate organic matter; Dissolved organic matter; Chlorophyll a; Nutrients  
  Abstract (up) Biogeochemical investigations of the upper layers of sea ice were made on layered summer ice floes collected from the Weddell Sea, Antarctica, from mid-February to March 1997. The surface layers had a clearly defined bottom layer immediately overlying a gap filled with seawater. Generally the gap covered rotten sea ice below. Using differences in algal biomass, mostly in the bottom layer of the surface ice overlying the gap, the floes were classified as low, moderate or high biomass. In addition, a floe with a re-frozen gap layer was studied. In the floes with the highest biomass, particulate organic carbon (POC) and nitrogen (PON) reached concentrations of up to 6000 µMC and 600 µMN in the bottom layer. In the upper part of the surface ice layer and the gap water, particulate and dissolved organic matter concentrations (POM, DOM) were clearly lower. High concentrations of POM were generally accompanied by high values of DOM although POM values generally exceeded DOM. All C and N contents of organic matter were significantly correlated. In gap waters, POM was low but still clearly higher than in the surrounding seawater, whereas DOM was in the range of seawater concentrations. Most POC/PON and C/chlorophyll a ratios pointed to an actively growing algae community, whereas the higher and more variable DOC/DON ratios reflected the various sources influencing DOM composition. Nitrate and silicate closely followed the signature of salinity, reaching in some gap water samples values similar to seawater concentrations. In some samples, in particular from the upper part of the surface ice layer, nitrate was totally exhausted. The distribution of the regenerated nutrients ammonium and phosphate was totally different from that of nitrate and silicate, reaching values of up to 15.9 and 9.08 µM, respectively. The bottom ice layer of the floe with the re-frozen gap layer had a high biomass similar to that of the high-biomass ice floe. DOC concentrations were lower, and DON maximum was not clearly linked with DOC maximum, but instead was associated with high ammonium and phosphate concentrations. The significant correlations between POM and DOM as well as between nitrate and silicate and between the regenerated nutrients ammonium and phosphate indicate that the gap-layer floes are semi-enclosed, highly productive habitats that still maintain high biomass during freezing. They are ubiquitous in the Antarctic pack-ice zone and important features that support high algae standing stocks.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Inter-Research Place of Publication Oldendorf/Luhe Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0171-8630 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ admin @ Kattner++2004 Serial 745  
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Author Gleitz, M.; Thomas, D.N. url  openurl
  Title Variation in phytoplankton standing stock, chemical composition and physiology during sea-ice formation in the southeastern Weddell Sea, Antarctica Type Journal Article
  Year 1993 Publication Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology Abbreviated Journal J Exp Mar Biol Ecol  
  Volume 173 Issue 2 Pages 211-230  
  Keywords Antarctic; ecophysiology; ice algae; phytoplankton; primary production; sea-ice formation; biochemical composition; plant physiology; Psw; Weddell Sea; population number; sea ice; algae; standing crop  
  Abstract (up) Changes in physico-chemical conditions, phytoplankton biomass, biochemical composition and primary productivity were investigated during autumnal sea-ice formation in the southeastern Weddell Sea, Antarctica. During sea-ice growth, brine salinities gradually increased with decreasing temperature. Nutrient concentrations in the brine of sea ice older than 2 weeks were lower than calculated from initial surface seawater values. The concomittant accumulation of phytoplankton biomass could not be explained solely by physical enrichment. We suggest that several microalgal species retained the capacity to assimilate nutrients and continued to grow in newly formed sea ice. However, nutrient depletions were moderate, and biochemical analyses did not indicate nutrient stress of algal metabolism. Relative abundance of smaller diatom species increased during ice growth, suggesting that pore space available for colonization in conjunction with physiological acclimation capacity were major factors determining successional patterns in recently formed sea ice. Even though ice algal assemblages apparently sustained the capacity to acclimate to reduced irradiances brought about by ice growth and increasing snow cover, maximum primary production was considerably lower than values usually reported from spring and summer ice communities. Therefore, autumnal primary production in newly formed sea ice may not add greatly to total annual production, but may provide an important food source for ice-associated grazers during the winter period, when phytoplankton biomass in the water column is extremely low.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Elsevier Science B.V. Place of Publication Amsterdam Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0022-0981 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ admin @ Gleitz+Thomas1993 Serial 734  
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Author Herborg, L.-M.; Thomas, D.N.; Kennedy, H.; Haas, C.; Dieckmann, G.S. url  openurl
  Title Dissolved carbohydrates in Antarctic sea ice Type Journal Article
  Year 2001 Publication Antarctic Science Abbreviated Journal Antarct Sci  
  Volume 13 Issue 2 Pages 119-125  
  Keywords Doc; Mcho; Pcho; sea ice; bacteria; carbon cycling; diatoms; dissolved organic carbon; monocarbohydrates; polycarbohydrates  
  Abstract (up) Concentrations of dissolved monocarbohydrates (MCHO) and polycarbohydrates (PCHO) were analysed in a variety of ice habitats from summer Weddell Sea sea ice (surface ponds, ice cores, gap layers and platelet ice). The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) pool in these habitats was also measured and the contribution of carbohydrate to this pool was assessed. The DOC concentrations within all sea ice habitats were high compared to surface seawater concentrations with values up to 958µMC being measured. Total carbohydrates (TCHO) were highest in the ice cores and platelet ice samples, up to 3 1% of the DOC pool, a reflection of the high algal biomass in these two habitat classes. TCHO in the other habitats ranged between 10% and 29% of DOC. The ratios of MCHO to PCHO varied considerably between the ice habitats: in surface ponds and ice cores MCHO was 70% of the TCHO pool, whereas in gap layers and platelet ice there were lower PCHO concentrations resulting in MCHO being 88% of TCHO.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ admin @ Herborg++2001 Serial 743  
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